The English language is one of the most difficult topics for English speaking people. Primarily, this is due to the fact that the student often doesn’t understand their value and meaning. Traditionally, experts identify 12 times, while in their native language 3. In order to finally master this material, you need to structure knowledge on the subject. The article will be useful to people who are already familiar with the theory, but I can’t proceed to practice.
Where to start?
English all times are divided into three large groups:
- Present (Present).
- Future (Future).
- Past (Past).
As you can see, at this stage, English is not different from the Russian.
Next, in each group there are different categories of tenses: Simple (simple), Continuous (continued), Perfect (Perfect) and Perfect Continuous (continue perfect). Why do you need such a large number of times? This greatly facilitates the understanding of the interlocutor in the communication process. Each of these times has its own value. Understanding this matter, you will never be to make mistakes in the process of the use of English sentences.
Times category Simple
This is the simple present. It is used to denote a sequence of different actions, or General facts:
She gets up, washes her face and has breakfast.
She wakes up, washes and eats Breakfast.
My name is Jane, I’m from London.
My name is Jane. I’m from London.
Also the Present Simple is used to Express scientifically proven fact and recurring events:
I always help my mother.
I always help my mom.
Ice melts at 0 degrees.
The ice melts at a temperature of 0 degrees.
Expresses a normal fact or action in the past tense:
Yesterday I played football.
Yesterday I played football.
As well as the Present Simple may be regular action, but in the past:
This house was built 20 years ago.
The house was built 20 years ago.
Using the simple past tense – the Past Simple, we are interested in the transfer of the fact.
In this case, the total time value is not changed.
Future Simple can be used either for regular actions in the future:
I will visit you very often.
I very often visit you.
Or for the transmission of simple fact in the future:
She will move to her mother next year.
Next year she will move to his mother.
A brief conclusion:
The days of the British group Simple are the most commonly used. They are used to exchange information. Attention is not highlighted neither duration nor completeness of action.
Times categories: Continuous
Here the main thing to remember the value of the entire group process.
Present Continuous is a process which occurs in the present tense. Action could begin in the recent past and may end within a certain period of time:
She is sleeping now.
She’s asleep now.
It’s raining at the moment.
At the moment it is raining.
Another option use an expression of dissatisfaction, irritation:
You are always playing computer games!
You’re always playing computer games!
The same applies to time Past Continuous. It expresses a certain process at a specific point in the past:
She was sleeping at 10 p.m. yesterday.
Last night at 10 PM she was asleep.
Future Continuous also expresses the process at some point in the future:
Tomorrow at 9 a.m. I will be helping my best friend.
Tomorrow at 9 am I will to help his best friend.
A brief conclusion:
English the time of Continuous are used to demonstrate the fragment of a long period of time. This time is almost always used with such words as now (now), and also at the moment (in the moment).
Times category Perfect
This time, people have a lot of the confusion. The key value of this group is the result. Use this time we are interested in the end of a particular action or event.
This result, which managed to get to this point:
I have already done my homework and I can go for a walk.
I’ve already done the homework and can go for a walk.
It turns out that the action itself (the prep) is no longer satisfied, it is fully completed. But at the moment we can see the result: the opportunity to go for a walk.
Verbs in the Present Perfect, as a rule, translated into Russian in the past tense. However, the action in this time is perceived in the present, as bound to the current time result.
Used to indicate the outcome to a specific point in the past:
He had done the task by 11 p.m.
By 11 p.m., he got the job done.
Also the Past Perfect can be used to indicate the sequence of actions in the past and, respectively, of the sequence of tenses:
James said that he had noticed his old friend.
James said that he noticed an old friend.
Thus, first, James noticed an old friend, and then told about it. On the contrary, it could not happen in any way.
The time required for the transfer of future result:
I will have cleaned my room by 5 p.m.
I’ll clean the room for 5pm.
At 5 o’clock the action will not be executed, but it will be the result – a clean room.
Thus, Future Perfect used to Express action that will begin and end before a specific point in the future with a certain result.
A brief conclusion:
Perfect – perfect time, which necessarily requires a certain result, which can also be negative.
Times category Perfect Continuous
This category simply described. The main meaning – a process which lasts a certain amount of time. For example:
Present Perfect Continuous
She has been sleeping for 2 hours already.
She slept for 2 hours.
That is, the action started in the past and continues at the moment.
Past Perfect Continuous
It is a process that started long ago and continued until specific time in the past.
She had been sleeping for 3 hours when I came back.
At the time, when I came back, she slept for 3 hours.
Return – the moment of the past which were committed to the process (sleep).
Future Perfect Continuous
It is a process that lasts a specific amount of time to a specific point in the future.
She will have been sleeping for 4 hours when you come back.
By the time when you get back, she’ll sleep for 4 hours.
A brief conclusion:
Quite a bulky design this time can «facilitate» the use of time Perfect. However, this advice is appropriate in that case, if you are preparing for some important examinations: the tests like to test the knowledge of all time.
Recommendations for the study of the English language
1. Determined to learn the English language, first make for yourself a table with the theory and some examples of the use of time. Such tables can be easily found on the Internet. In the process of writing you are bound to remember some information.
2. Do not try to make the emphasis on theoretical material. Try immediately to translate the examples and understand their meaning. Well, if you have the opportunity to consult with a specialist who will clarify obscure points.
3. You should not try to learn everything at once. Spread the material by topic. For example, a week will be devoted to familiarization with the times group Simple, week – Continuous and so on. Hurry clearly not worth it: you can expect a lot of pitfalls, subtleties, and even the use of exceptions.
4. Constant practice. As they say experienced people and qualified teachers, the best way to learn the English language is constant practice. The more exercise you do, the faster you will be able to achieve a positive result. Especially good if you decide to do translations from Russian into English: and the days of pull, and at the same time expand their own vocabulary.
5. Have the ability to communicate with a foreigner who knows the English language? Be sure to use this chance. Don’t underestimate the advantages of virtual communication.
6. Use all the opportunities to improve own knowledge. For example, on GooglePlay you can find a lot of useful applications for the study of the English language.
What benefits to use for study time?
1. First and foremost, you need a decent book with theoretical material. Should pay attention to the tutorial Round-Up Virginia Evans. This modern and colourful publication. The book presents different options of difficulty: from 1 to 7. Contains a lot of material on grammar.
2. Table English tenses and irregular verbs. Essential materials for successful language learning. The first time, be sure to keep these manuals in front of eyes during class. Over time you will look at a «cheat sheet» less often. Also it is necessary to find in the Internet the various exercises on the topic of interest. Free access enough of them.
3. Grammar Carlton. This Russian edition is positioned as a teaching tool for students, but it has not the most simple task. Using this collection of job, you will have a lot of work, because in the book there are quite a few conversion exercises. If you decide to do it yourself, be sure to buy or download the correct keys to the textbook. Mistakes is to provide a marker and carefully consider. In the course of exercising alone try to formulate the reason of the use of a particular time.
4. Books to prepare for various international tests: TOEFL, IELTS and so on. These exams have a relatively high level requirements of knowledge of all aspects of grammar, so a few weeks later, you will notice a positive effect. In addition, you will complete writing assignments: write an essay or essay. Would be great if you can find a qualified person who can verify your work.
Thus, to master the tenses in English is quite real. For this you just need to understand their correct value, and then you can immediately start working out in practice. The main thing – do not despair if you experience any difficulties that are sure to meet you on the way. Make an effort and everything will work out!